Elements A Criminal Must Possess For A Crime To Occur
What is Crime Prevention?
By definition, Crime Prevention is "Being aware that a crime
occur, anticipating its form, location, time and victim, and taking
action to reduce the chances of its happening."
are three elements the criminal must possess for a crime to occur:
Think of them as a triangle. Eliminate just one of the elements, and
no crime will take place, the triangle cannot be completed. You have
no control over the first two elements. Whether the criminal has the
desire or ability to commit the crime is solely up to them. However,
you can have great control, if not eliminate, the third element -
prevention is using instinct, common sense, and
to eliminate or greatly reduce the criminal's opportunity. A large
share of the responsibility of reducing criminal opportunity lies with
YOU! That is not to say that if you are a victim of crime it is your
entire fault and not the fault of the criminal...certainly not! But
the fact remains that WE all have a personal part to play regarding
How to practice Crime Prevention.
Educate yourself on
prevention techniques. Mark your personal property and maintain
personal security. Get to know your police. Memorize the phone number,
know the location of the police station, get to know and support your
local police officers.
any crime or suspicion of crime at once. You can't assume that someone
else has already reported it. Stay informed by following the news and
keeping up-to-date on local crime problems. Work with others, like
Block Watch and Business Watch. Support the whole legal process and
help stamp out the cause of crime. And most of all is a good role
model and obey the laws yourself. Set a good example for others -
especially your children. Remember, you are the key to winning the war
As a community service, the East
Orange Police Department in association with the New York State
Police are offering helpful crime prevention and safety
information that you can download and reproduce. To view and print the
information, you must have Adobe's Acrobatģ which you can download,
without cost, directly from Adobe by clicking on below link.
Bomb Threat Instruction Card
||This card is a guide on how to
respond when a person receives a "bomb threat" telephone call.
Crime Prevention for People with Physical
||Crime prevention for people with
physical disabilities when they are at home, on vacation, out and
about and on public transportation.
||A guide for parents to help
protect their children when their children are on the Internet.
||This pamphlet discusses how to prevent date
rape, what to do when someone you care about has been sexually
assaulted, what to do if you have been raped, the "date rape" drug
and some myths/truths about date rape.
Guide to Business Security
||Crime prevention tips and
techniques to help businesses keep their establishments safe.
Halloween Safety Coloring Book
||A 12-page coloring book that
contains safety coloring pages, mazes and quiz for students and
some Halloween safety pointers for parents.
On-line Safety Rules
||This one-page poster can be printed in color or
black and white, signed by your children) and posted near the
family's computer as a reminder your children) to be careful when
they are on the Internet.
Project SAVE: Safe
Schools Against Violence in Education
||The guide defines SAVE planning requirements
and assists school personnel in developing safety plans and
forming school safety teams.
School Crime Scene Management
||A guide to help school personnel appropriately
manage a school crime scene and, thus, minimize contamination of
critical crime scene evidence.
Take Crime Prevention to Work
||This pamphlet gives workers crime
prevention tips to employ in their office, around their building,
at the airport, on the road and in a hotel
Working Together to Create Safer Schools
||This pamphlet gives advice to
students, parents, school staff and community partners on how to
create a safer school environment.
Identity Theft is one of the fastest growing crimes in the United States
and is the number one consumer fraud in the nation. The East Orange
Police Department, in conjunction with The United States Postal
Inspection Service and the Federal Trade Commission are working hard to
combat this issue. Several resources have been pooled in an effort to
assist victims of this crime.
The East Orange Police Department would like to get as much information
to the community as possible. Below you will find two links, one to the
United States Postal Inspection Service's site
www.usps.gov/postalinspectors which will allow you to view their
identity theft pamphlet. This pamphlet has information on how to
safeguard your personal information so that you will reduce your chances
of being a victim of identity theft. You will also find a link to the
Federal Trade Commission's site
which will allow you to look at the statistics on identity theft. This
site also contains instructions for completing the ID theft affidavit.
This affidavit will attest that you are a victim of identity theft and
is a vital step in disclaiming false purchases made by using your
identity. If you discover that you are a victim of identity theft
contact the East Orange Police Department.
Here are 10 tips
recommended by the East Orange Police to prevent identity theft:
1. Guard that Social Security
The most important step is to
guard your Social Security number -- it is the key to your credit report
and banking accounts and is the prime target of criminals. Do not print
your Social Security number on your checks. After applying for a loan,
credit card, rental or anything else that requires a credit report,
request that your Social Security number on the application be truncated
or completely obliterated and your original credit report be shredded
before your eyes or returned to you once a decision has been made. A
lender or rental manager needs to retain only your name and credit score
to justify a decision.
2. Monitor your credit report...
Credit reports can alert you to activity in your financial records.
A monitoring service, such as Privacy Guard, will notify you whenever
someone applies for credit in your name or checks your credit history.
You then can be proactive; call the person and ask, "Why are you
checking my credit?" It might be a landlord or employer; it might be
3. Buy a shredder and use it...
Identity thieves may use your garbage to obtain personal
information. Shred all old bank and credit statements, as well as "junk
mail" credit-card offers, before trashing them. Use a crosscut shredder
-- they cost more than regular shredders but are superior.
4. Remove your name from marketing lists...
The three credit-reporting bureaus -- Equifax, Experian and
TransUnion -- all maintain marketing lists that may contain your
information. Contact the agencies to remove your name from the lists.
You also should add your name to the name-deletion lists of the Direct
Marketing Association's Mail Preference Service and Telephone Preference
Service used by banks and other marketers. Removing your name from these
lists reduces the number of pre-approved credit offers you receive.
5. Watch what you carry in your wallet...
Do not keep your Social Security card in your wallet or carry extra
credit cards or other important identity documents except when needed.
These documents can give thieves ready access to your accounts.
6. Keep duplicate records...
Place the contents of your wallet on a photocopy machine. Copy both
sides of your license and credit cards so you have all the account
numbers, expiration dates and phone numbers if your wallet or purse is
7. Mail payments from a safe location...
Do not mail bill payments and checks from home. They can be stolen
from your mailbox and washed clean in chemicals. Take them to the post
8. Monitor your Social Security activity...
Order your Social Security Earnings and Benefits statement once a
year to check for fraud.
9. Monitor your credit-card activity...
Carefully examine your credit-card statements for fraudulent charges
before paying them. If you don't need or use department-store or
bank-issued credit cards, close the accounts.
10. Know who you are talking to...
Never give your credit-card number or personal information over the
phone unless you have initiated the call and trust that business.
What to Do if
Someone Has Already Filed Taxes Using Your Social Security Number
If someone uses your
information to file a fraudulent tax return, he or she is looking to get
your tax refund. You'll want to work with the IRS as soon as you
discover the identity theft to ensure that your actual return is
processed as quickly as possible.
The Internal Revenue Service has taken steps to improve its identity
theft prevention, detection and resolution programs. This includes
improvements that help detect fraudulent returns and prevent further
processing of them, as well as improvements to the way identity theft
cases are handled.
In most cases, if someone uses your information to file a tax return, he
is looking to get your tax refund. You'll want to work with the IRS as
soon as you discover the identity theft to ensure that your actual
return is processed as quickly as possible. And you should consider
placing holds on your accounts to prevent additional loss from theft.
many cases, when someone files a tax return using your Social Security
number, you wonít find out until after the second return is filed. The
second return could be from you or the person who has stolen your
When the IRS receives two different returns with the same Social
Security number, the return will be rejected if you e-filed or youíll
get a written notice that explains that a return has already been filed
if you paper filed your return. Even if you donít get a letter from the
IRS but suspect a fraudulent return has been filed with your
information, you can still take action.
IRS Form 14039
discover another a tax return has been filed with your Social Security
number, youíll use IRS Form 14039 to alert the IRS. When you complete
this form, youíll indicate that someone has stolen your identity and it
has affected your tax account since they have filed a return using your
identifying information. Youíll also provide information about the tax
year affected and the last return you filed prior to the identity theft.
Sending Form 14039
complete Form 14039, mail it to the IRS with a copy of your Social
Security card and driverís license. If you donít have a driverís
license, you can substitute a U.S. Passport, military ID or other
government-issued identification card.
If you received an IRS notice concerning the fraudulent return, include
a copy of the notice. Mail the form and documents to the address shown
in your notice.
If you did not receive an IRS notice, mail your documents to
P.O. Box 9039
Andover, MA 01810-0939
has enough of your personal information to file a fraudulent tax return,
she can use your identity to commit other crimes. In addition to
alerting the IRS, you should place a freeze on your credit report file
with all three credit bureaus to prevent unauthorized accounts from
being opened. The Federal Trade Commission also suggests filing an
identity theft report with your local police department, and also with
the FTC online.
The FTC's Telemarketing Sales Rule requires telemarketers to make
certain disclosures and prohibits certain misrepresentations. It gives
you the power to stop unwanted telemarketing calls and gives state law
enforcement officers the authority to prosecute fraudulent telemarketers
who operate across state lines.
The Rule covers most types of telemarketing calls to consumers,
including calls to pitch goods, services, "sweepstakes," and prize
promotion and investment opportunities. It also applies to calls
consumers make in response to postcards or other materials received in
Keep this information near your telephone. It can help you determine if
you're talking with a scam artist or a legitimate telemarketer.
It's illegal for a telemarketer to call
you if you've asked not to be called. If they call back, hang up and
report them to your state Attorney General.
Calling times are restricted to the
hours between 8 a.m. and 9 p.m.
Telemarketers must tell you its a sales
call and who's doing the selling before they make their pitch. If it's
a prize promotion, they must tell you that no purchase or payment is
necessary to enter or win. If you're asked to pay for a prize, hang
up. Free is free.
It's illegal for telemarketers to
misrepresent any information, including facts about their goods or
services, earnings potential, profitability, risk or liquidity of an
investment, or the nature of a prize in a prize-promotion scheme.
Telemarketers must tell you the total
cost of the products or services they're offering and any restrictions
on getting or using them, or that a sale is final or non-refundable,
before you pay. In a prize promotion, they must tell you the odds of
winning, that no purchase or payment is necessary to win, and any
restrictions or conditions of receiving the prize.
It's illegal for a telemarketer to
withdraw money from your checking account without your expressed,
Telemarketers cannot lie to get you to
pay, no matter what method of payment you use.
You do not have to pay for credit
repair, recovery room, or advance-fee loan/credit services until these
services have been delivered. (Credit repair companies claim that, for
a fee, they can change or erase accurate negative information from
your credit report. Only time can erase such information. Recovery
room operators contact people who have lost money to a previous
telemarketing scam and promise that, for a fee or donation to a
specified charity, they will recover your lost money, or the product
or prize never received from a telemarketer. Advance-fee loans are
offered by companies who claim they can guarantee you a loan for a
fee, paid in advance. The fee may range from $100 to several hundred
While most types of telemarketing calls are covered by the Rule, there
are exceptions. The Rule does not cover:
Calls placed by consumers in response to
general media advertising, except calls responding to ads for
investment opportunities, credit repair services, recovery room
services, or advance-fee loans.
Calls placed by consumers in response to
direct mail advertising that discloses all the material information
required by the Rule, except calls responding to ads for investment
opportunities, prize promotions, credit repair services, recovery room
services, or advance-fee loans.
Calls initiated by the consumer that are
not made in response to any solicitation.
Sales that are not completed, and
payment or authorization for payment is not required, until there is a
face-to-face sales presentation.
Calls from one business to another
unless nondurable office or cleaning supplies are being offered.
Sales of pay-per-call services and sales
of franchises. These are covered by other FTC rules.
We all have the potential to be victims of
crime. Each of us can REDUCE THE RISK of our homes/property being
victimized by eliminating the desire, ability and the opportunity.
Unknown or suspicious persons trying to
get into the building should be referred to the Management, Security,
or the Superintendent.
DO NOT allow strangers to enter the
building as you are leaving or entering. Cooperate with all other
tenants in keeping the main doors locked at all times.
DO NOT buzz anyone into the building
whom you donít know.
Use only your first initial on the lobby
directory, doorbell, mailbox and phone directory.
Doors should be mounted with hinge bolts that are not facing inwards.
Install one-inch deadbolt locks on all exterior doors.
Chain locks are poor security. Install a wide-angle viewer instead, and NEVER open your door to a stranger.
NEVER leave your door unlocked, even while taking out the trash.
DO NOT leave notes on your apartment door, or on the lobby directory.
Use a Charlie-bar, or piece of wood, to secure the sliding glass doors and all lower windows.
If you see a stranger carrying items out of a neighborís apartment, call the Managerís office or 911.
Look to see whoís in the elevator before entering.
DO NOT enter the elevator if you do not feel comfortable. Wait for the next one.
When in the elevator, stand beside the control panel.
If a suspicious person enters the elevator, exit before the doors close.
If accosted on an elevator, hit as many floor buttons as possible.
Your home is your
castle...or is it? Are you really safe once your get home and lock
your door? In an open society your home should be the sanctuary for you
and your family. Your home is the only environment where you have
control over who can get close to you or your family. Protecting your
home and family from criminal intrusion should be high on your list of
should look out for each other. Get to know your neighbors on
each side of your home and the three directly across the street.
Invite them into your home, communicate often, and establish
trust. Good neighbors will watch out for your home or apartment
when you are away, if you ask them. They can report suspicious
activity to the police or to you while you are away. Between
them, good neighbors can see to it that normal services continue
in your absence by allowing vendors to mow your lawn or remove
snow. Good neighbors can pick up your mail, newspapers,
handbills, and can inspect the outside or inside of your home
periodically to see that all is well. Good neighbors will
occasionally park in your driveway to give the appearance of
occupancy while you are on vacation. Allowing a neighbor to have
a key solves the problem of hiding a key outside the door.
Experienced burglars know to look for hidden keys in
planter boxes, under doormats, above the ledge. Requiring a
service vendor to see your neighbor to retrieve and return your
house key will send the message that someone is watching. This
neighborhood watch technique sets up what is called
'territoriality' which means that your neighbors will take
ownership and responsibility for what occurs in your
mini-neighborhood. This concept works in both single family homes
communities and on apartment properties. This practice helps
deter burglaries and other crimes in a big way. Of course for
this to work, you must reciprocate and offer the same services.
Get to know all
your adjacent neighbors
into your home and establish trust
Agree to watch
out for each other's home
Do small tasks
for each other to improve territoriality
vacation, pick up newspapers, and flyers
Offer to park
your car in their driveway
favor and communicate often
Crime Watch: Suspicious Activities To Be Aware Of
concealing, attempting to conceal, or carrying something
Persons or vehicle stays in the same location for an unusually
long period of time.
Could be "casing" a home or business.
Criminal looking for a possible victim.
Waiting to participate in or initiate a drug transaction.
Person could be sick and may need assistance.
May be under the influence of drugs/alcohol.
May be sick or injured.
May be mentally ill.
Vehicle frequently "cruising" a block or specific location.
Might be a "get-away" car for a crime in progress.
Criminal(s) waiting for a specific or appropriate time to commit
Sex deviant/pervert looking for a target (victim).
Car parked with engine running.
A code violation in most states.
May be a "get-away" car.
looking into cars and moving from car to car.
Possible looking to burglarize a car.
May be attempting to steal a car.
Car being driven at night with no lights on.
Car is being stolen and the thief is attempting to avoid
Car is leaving the scene of a crime and the criminal is
attempting to conceal his tag, vehicle description and his
Person running at night or running for no apparent reason; is
not suitably dressed for jogging.
May be attempting to leave the scene of a crime.
Intended victim of a crime trying to escape.
Person seeking emergency help.
Person(s) selling or conducting business out of his vehicle.
May be selling merchandise without a license/permit.
Might be selling stolen merchandise.
Could be selling drugs.
Person climbing into or out of a window.
May be a burglary in progress.
Vehicle being driven in a reckless manner.
Driver may be under the influence of drugs/alcohol.
Driver may be attempting to transport someone to a hospital.
Driver may be leaving the scene of a crime or fleeing from
Suspicious Sounds - If you hear anything that sounds like
someone is being beaten, immediately call the police.
Prying, pounding or breaking glass - (burglary in progress?)
Screaming/yelling for help - (is someone in trouble?)
Alarm going off - (could be fire, burglar, or car alarm?)
Loud music - (is it being used to cover up screams for help as
in domestic violence, or to cover up a crime in progress?)
Gun shots - (murder?)
Interior lighting is
necessary to show signs of life and activity inside a residence.
A darken home night after night sends the message to burglars that
you are away on a trip. Light timers are inexpensive and can be
found everywhere. They should be used on a daily basis, not just
when your away. In this way you set up a routine that your
neighbors can observe and will allow them to become suspicious
when your normally lighted home becomes dark. Typically, you want
near the front and back windows with the curtains drawn. The
pattern of them clicking on and off simulates actual occupancy.
It is also comforting not to have to enter a dark residence. The
same light timers can be used to turn on radios or television sets
to further enhance the illusion of occupancy.
Exterior lighting is
also very important. It becomes critical if you must park in a
common area parking lot or underground garage and need to walk to
your front door. The purpose of good lighting is to allow you to
see if a threat or suspicious person is
in your path. If
you can see a potential threat in advance then you at least have
the choice and chance to avoid it. Exterior lighting needs to
bright enough for you to see 100 feet and it helps if you can
identify colors. Good lighting is definitely a deterrent to
criminals because they don't want to be seen or identified.
area to be well-lighted is the perimeter of your home or apartment
especially at the entryway. Exterior lighting on the front of a
property should always be on a timer to establish a routine and
appearance of occupancy at all times. Common area lighting on
apartment properties should also be on a timer or photo-cell to
turn on at dusk and turn off at dawn. Garage or porch lights left
on all day on a single family home is a dead giveaway that you are
out of town. Exterior lighting at the rear of a home or
apartment are usually on a switch because of the proximity to the
sleeping rooms. The resident can choose to leave these lights on
or off. Security lights with
infra-red motion sensors are
relatively inexpensive and can easily replace an exterior porch
light or side door light on single family homes. The heat-motion
sensor can be adjusted to detect body heat and can be programmed
to reset after one minute. These security lights are highly
recommended for single family homes.
light timers to establish a pattern of occupancy
lighting should allow 100 foot visibility
lighting along the pathway and at your door
timers or photo-cells to turn on/off lights automatically
motion sensor lights on the rear of single family homes
definitely have a place in a home security plan and are effective,
if used properly. The reason why alarms systems deter burglaries
is because they increase the potential and fear of being caught
and arrested by the police. The deterrent value
comes from the alarm company lawn sign and from the alarm decals
on the windows. Home and apartment burglars will usually bypass a
property with visible alarm signs and will go to another property
without such a sign. Some people, with alarm systems, feel that
these signs and decals are unsightly and will not display them.
The risk here is that an uninformed burglar might break a window
or door and grab a few quick items before the police can respond.
Also, don't write your alarm pass code on or near the alarm
Alarm systems need
to be properly installed and maintained. Alarms systems can
monitor for fire as well as burglary for the same price. All
systems should have an audible horn or bell to be effective in
case someone does break in. However, these audible alarms should
be programmed to reset automatically after one or two minutes.
The criminal got the message and will be long gone but your
neighbors will have to listen to the alarm bell, sometimes for
hours, until it is shut off. If you use a central station to
monitor your alarm, make sure your response call list is up to
date. Home alarms, like car alarms, are generally ignored except
for a brief glance. However, if you have established and
nurtured your neighborhood watch
you will experience a genuine concern by your neighbor. It is not
unusual to have a neighbor wait for the police, allow them inside
for an inspection, and secure the residence. A good neighbor can
also call the glass company or locksmith to repair any damage, if
pre-authorized by you.
difficulty getting to this level of concern is taking the first
step. You can take it by calling your local crime prevention
unit at the police department. Most police departments in large
cities have neighborhood watch coordinators to help you set this
up. You should
invite your adjacent neighbors over
to your home for coffee and begin the information exchange.
You'll be amazed how the process runs on automatic from there.
are effective deterrents with visible signage
to be properly installed, programmed, and maintained
need to have an audible horn or bell to be effective
Make sure your
alarm response call list is up to date
neighbor how to respond to an alarm bell
OPERATION TARGET IDENTIFICATION
This is a program
supported by most police agencies. They recommend that you
your drivers license number or social security number on
televisions, stereos, computers, and small electronic appliances.
They suggest this so they can identify and locate you if your
stolen items are recovered. The E.O.P.D. suggests that you go way
beyond this step.
The East Orange
Police Department recommends that you photograph your valuables
and make a list of the make, model, and serial numbers. You
should keep this list in a safety deposit box or with a relative
for safe keeping. Beyond that we recommend that you
photocopy important documents and the
contents of your wallet. You will be thankful that you took these
steps in case your home is ever destroyed by fire or flood, is
ransacked, or if your wallet is lost or stolen.
valuables by engraving your drivers license number
record the serial numbers of all valuables
contents of your wallet and other documents
copies in a safe deposit box or with a relative
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